sexta-feira, 31 de julho de 2020

Background notes, Macau, 1982 - United States Department of State





Background Notes: Macau, 1982 

 United States Department of State - Bureau of Public Affairs

quinta-feira, 30 de julho de 2020

Warren's Circus em 1902

Em Dezembro de 1902 o The Hong Kong Daily Press 1902 dava conta da ida a Macau do Circo Warren (de George Warren) depois dos espectáculos realizados em Hong Kong. A companhia andou ainda pela China e pela Índia.

quarta-feira, 29 de julho de 2020

"Plano Reformado do Rio de Macao": 1829

Este "Plano Reformado do Rio de Macáo" foi "offerecido" a João Cabral de Estefique*, "tenente coronel e Governador interino da ditta cidade por Miguel de Souza, tenente da marinha e patrão mor do porto de Macao."
* Governador interino até Julho de 1833.
Entre as legendas deste mapa hidrográfico ou carta náutica destaque para "Taipa Qebrada" (Taipa Grande) e "Maria Nunes*" (Taipa Pequena)

Na sequência da 'afirmação' do domínio português sobre Macau, o governador João Maria Ferreira do Amaral incumbiu o capitão do porto, Pedro José da Silva Loureiro, em Abril de 1847, de construir a Casa Forte da Taipa. 
Depois de difíceis negociações com os mandarins e com o vice-rei de Cantão, a bandeira portuguesa foi içada pela primeira vez nessa ilha ao 9 de Setembro de 1847. Em 1879 seria também ocupada a Taipa Quebrada ou Ilha de Maria Nunes e aí levantado um quartel, no antigo edifício do hospital.

* Explicação possível: Ana Rosa Maria Nunes da Rocha Tenreiro foi mulher de António da Silva Telo de Menezes, governador de Macau no final do século 17. 

A 23 de Dezembro de 1864, os habitantes de Coloane pediram que uma força militar portuguesa os fosse proteger contra os piratas. Foi assim que só ao fim de vários séculos na península de Macau o domínio português se estendeu até às ilhas passando a administrar Taipa (na época formada por duas ilhas, Pequena e Grande) e Coloane. A sistematização desta administração viria a ocorrer apenas em 1878.

terça-feira, 28 de julho de 2020

Liceu Nacional Infante D. Henrique na Praia Grande: imagens e mapa


No início da década de 1980 (edifício demolido no início da década 1990)
Mapa do início da década de 1960. O edifício - primeiro construído de raiz para uma instituição criada em 1894 - foi inaugurado em Outubro de 1958.
Imagens da década 1960
Ao fundo, do lado direito, é o Edifício Rainha D. Leonor

segunda-feira, 27 de julho de 2020

"Rampa da Guia"

Durante muito tempo, as traseiras da fachada da igreja Mater Dei (Ruínas de S. Paulo) e a Fortaleza do Monte serviram como depósito de património de pequenas dimensões que pelas mais diversas razões foi sendo retirado do local original. Aqui fica um exemplo, esta pedra em cuja inscrição pode ler-se "Rampa da Guia".
A Rampa da Guia foi o topónimo dado em 1872 à subida ou ladeira que dá acesso à Fortaleza e Ermida da Guia.
Num edital de 1913 (Boletim Oficial nº 27) pode ler-se: "Faz-se público que no dia 6 de Agosto de 1913, se procederá à arrematação em hasta pública, por licitação verbal das seguintes obras: Diversas reparações na Fortaleza do Monte; Drenagem e pavimentação do Bairro dos Tin-Tins; Prolongamento do Colector da Calçada do Gaio (do prédio n.º 16 a Rampa da Guia)"
Actualmente o marco toponímico faz parte do espólio do Museu de Macau localizado na Fortaleza do Monte.

sábado, 25 de julho de 2020

The Macau Firecracker Industry: A Brief History

Na edição de Julho de 2020 do boletim da PGI Pyrotechnics Guild International, Inc, surge nas páginas 45 a 49 um artigo que a referida instituição me convidou a escrever sobre a história da indústria dos panchões em Macau. Intitula-se "The Macau Firecracker Industry: A Brief History".
A PGI é a maior associação do género nos EUA. Foi fundada em 1969 e tem mais de 2500 sócios.
Eis o artigo:
Firecracker fans and collectors, this article is especially for you! Macau’s firecracker industry lasted for more than 100 years. It all started in 1881, in the Macau peninsula. Firecrackers took an important role on Macau’s economy, being for many decades the most important product. They were mostly for export to the USA, not only for the Fourth of July but also for the Chinese people who lived there. By 1910 there were already 7 factories, a number that grew steadily providing work for thousand of employees. In the mid 1920s because of a few explosions with some deaths and injuries, most of the factories were transferred from the Macau peninsula to Taipa island. In the early 1960s, the industry began to decline. Several countries banned the product and from 1971, after China and USA reactivated relations, the Beijing government increased its subsidies to the factories on the mainland. 
Macau, once the world’s biggest producer of firecrackers, stopped producing firecrackers in the mid 1980s. Now they are imported from various parts of China. Factories and labels The most important factories were Kwong Hing Tai, Iec Long and Po Sing. During my research I found at least 63 different ones. Kwong Hing Tai and Iec Long were so important that they had their own private pier at Macau’s inner harbour (Figure 1.) On Taipa island they gave jobs to the majority of the population. Firecrackers were made in several shapes and sizes, which is why we have so many different packaging types.
The artistic designs of the labels are precious. Most of them have “Made In Macau” printed on them, but even when they don’t, and instead we read “Made in China”, most of them were in fact produced in Macau. Among the most popular brands “Made in Macau” are: Camel, Duck, Peacock, Black Hawk, Anchor, Black Cat, Yan Kee Boy, etc. So far, I have found more than 300 brands, including some with spelling variations, such as Atta Boy and That-A-Boy. I’m not a collector but I a have a few labels  from the years when I lived in Macau, back in the 1980s. If you’re interested, on your next trip to Macau, you should visit the Macau Museum. There you will find an exhibition of the Macau firecracker industry, including several labels, pictures and machines that were used in production. 
Curious facts: 
- There are 3 ways to write “firecracker” in Chinese characters 煙 火 - 煙 (smoke ) 火 (fire): pronounced : yān huˇo - firework 爆 竹 - 爆 (explosion) 竹 (bamboo): pronounced: bào zhú – firecracker 鞭 炮 - 鞭 (whip) 炮 (gun): ): pronounced: bianpào - firecrackers/a string of small firecrackers 
- Since 1966 the US government has forbidden the import of Cherry Bombs, supercharged flash crackers and M-80 crackers. 
- Iec Long was the Macau firecracker factory that was in operation for the longest time, between 1923 and 1984; it was also known as Yick Long, Yick Loong, Yec Long and Yick Lung; In Chinese, 益 隆 (Yilong) means “beneficial prosperity”. - Brand label in detail: Children Brand by Yick Loong from 1940’s in English, with some text in Chinese: Chinese text alongside: “政府註冊兒童 商標, 益隆炮竹公司出品”. (Zhèngfˇu zhùcè értóng shāngbiāo, yìlóng pào zhú gōngsī chūpˇin) 
This translates as:
“Government registered ‘Children’ trademark, produced by Yilong Firecracker Company” Above the title: “總發行澳門康公廟前 街十四號鄧壁堂監製”. (Zˇo ng faxíng àomén kāng gōng miào qián jiē shísì hào dèngbìtáng jiānzhì) This translates as: “General Manager, Producer Deng Bitang, No.14, Kang Kung Temple Front Street, Macau.” From the 1950s same brand had “Made in Macau” instead of “Made in China” 
 - One simple way to check if a brand label is young or old is to look for safety messages; if there aren’t any, it’s a vintage firecracker! 
- By tradition, a firecracker is lit with an incense stick. 
PS: I am working on a research about the history of Macau’s Firecracker Industry and I will appreciate all the help you may provide. I will also share with you the information that I found so far. Please contact me by e-mail: macauantigo@gmail.com 
This is the main address of my big project on Macau’s history - macauantigo.blogspot.com Thank you! – João F. O. Botas

sexta-feira, 24 de julho de 2020

Correio Marítimo: "Mala para Índia e Europa" 1882

Correio Maritimo de Macau
Aviso
Fechar-se-ha n'este correio a mala para a Índia e Europa por um dos vapores da companhia peninsular e oriental, no dia 24 do corrente mez, ás 3 horas da tarde.
E no dia 30, ás mesmas horas, ha-de-se fechar a mala para a India e Europa por um dos vapores da companhia Messageries Maritimes.
Correio maritimo, Macau, 18 de maio de 1882.
R. de Sousa, Administrador Interino

quinta-feira, 23 de julho de 2020

Charles Ricou e a Macau Aerial Transport Company

A Macau Aerial Transport (MAT) foi a primeira companhia aérea criada em Macau e Hong Kong. O feito deve-se a Charles Edmond William de Ricou, cidadão francês, piloto durante a primeira guerra mundial. Nasceu em Hong Kong em 1881, estudou jovem em França onde tirou engenharia e aprendeu a pilotar. No início do século XX já tinha residência em Macau. Ali foi accionista e director da empresa que fornecia a energia eléctrica:  a Far East Electric Company de 1906 a 1910 e a Melco a partir de 1910. Teve ainda uma empresa de gelo, a Macao Ice and Cold Storage Company..
Picture
Charles Edmond William de Ricou na Indochina em 1918. Foto HKHAA.

A ideia era ligar por via aérea os dois territórios bem como Cantão, transportando carga, passageiros e correio. Estávamos em 1920. Após negociações com o governo, a 3 de Fevereiro de 1920 foi dada autorização à The Macao Aerial Transport Co Ltd para construir um hangar provisório para hidroaviões, "em terreno vago pertencente ao estado" na zona da Barra (entrada no Porto Interior).
A 13 de Fevereiro foi feito um voo de teste com a viagem a durar 20 minutos. Numa embarcação a vapor a viagem durava quatro horas e meia. Em Junho foi feita uma nova demonstração da capacidade dos aparelhos em Hong Kong (imagem abaixo). Os pilotos eram norte-americanos.
 
Para levar a cabo a sua ideia, Ricou chegou a comprar cinco hidroaviões Curtiss Model F (pretendia inicialmente 12) nas Filipinas. Um dos hidroaviões foi baptizado com o nome de "Almirante Paço d´Arcos".
Picture
Um "Curtiss" com a Cruz de Cristo em Repulse Bay

Vicissitudes várias levaram o projecto de um sonhador ao fracasso. Dois hidroaviões foram vendidos ao governo de Macau para a criação de uma escola de aviação, mas também esta viria a a não ter sucesso.
Um dos hidroaviões de Ricou em Macau

Em Julho de 1924, Charles de Ricou, condecorado com a Cruz de Guerra (França), e Cavaleiro da Ordem de Cristo (Portugal) regressou a Paris onde viria um bem sucedido homem de negócios. Na segunda guerra mundial destacou-se como um dos líderes da resistência aos alemães. Morreu a 21 de Dezembro de 1961 após doença prolongada.

quarta-feira, 22 de julho de 2020

Portuguese Settlement of Macao

The land of the boxers, or, China under the allies, da autoria de Gordon Casserly, foi publicado em 1903.
Macau surge no capítulo X intitulado "In the Portuguese Colony of Macao" e que inclui as seguintes abordagens:
"Early history of Macao - Its decay - A source of danger to Hong Kong - Fleet of the Hong Kong, Canton, and Macao Steamboat Company - The Heungshan and its passengers - Guarding against piracy - Macao from the sea - An awkward Chinaman - The Boa Vista Hotel - View over the city - The Praia Grande - Around the peninsula - In the Public Gardens - Administration of Macao - A night alarm - A mutinous regiment - Portuguese and Macaese society - A visit to the Governor - An adventure with the police - An arrest - Insolent treatment of British subjects - Redress - An arrest in Japan - Chinese gambling-houses - Fantan - The sights of Macao."
No post de hoje destaco a descrição que o autor faz da sua ida a Macau a partir de Hong Kong, incluindo não só a viagem na embarcação a vapor, como também a sua passagem por locais como a Porta do Cerco, o Jardim de S. Francisco (denominado como public garden) onde assistiu à actuação da banda municipal, o jardim da Flora, o hotel Boa Vista, etc...

Forty miles from Hong Kong, hidden away among the countless islands that fringe the entrance to the estuary of the Chukiang or Pearl River, lies the Portuguese settlement of Macao. Once flourishing and prosperous, the centre of European trade with Southern China, it is now decaying and almost unknown killed by the competition of its young and successful rival. Long before Elizabeth ascended the throne of England the venturesome Portuguese sailors and merchants had reached the Far East. There they carried their country's flag over seas where now it never flies. An occasional gunboat represents in Chinese waters their once powerful and far-roaming navy. In the island of Lampacao, off the south-eastern coast, their traders were settled, pushing their commerce with the mainland. 
In 1557 the neighbouring peninsula of Macao was ceded to them in token of the Chinese Emperor's gratitude for their aid in destroying the power of a pirate chief who had long held sway in the seas around. The Dutch, the envious rivals of the Portuguese in the East, turned covetous eyes on the little colony which speedily began to flourish. In 1622 the troops in Macao were despatched to assist the Chinese against the Tartars. Taking advantage of their absence, the Governor of the Dutch East Indies fitted out a fleet to capture their city. In the June of that year the hostile ships appeared off Macao and landed a force to storm the fort. The valiant citizens fell upon and defeated the invaders; and the Dutch sailed away baffled. 
Until the early part of the nineteenth century the Portuguese paid an annual tribute of five hundred taels to the Chinese Government in acknowledgment of their nominal suzerainty. In 1848, the then Governor, Ferreira Amaral, refused to continue this payment and expelled the Chinese officials from the colony. 
In 1887, the independence of Macao was formally admitted by the Emperor in a treaty to that effect. But the palmy days of its commerce died with the birth of Hong Kong. The importance of the Portuguese settlement has dwindled away. Macao is but a relic of the past. 
Its harbour is empty. The sea around has silted up with the detritus from the Pearl River until now no large vessels can approach. A small trade in tea, tobacco, opium, and silk is all that is left. The chief revenue is derived from the taxes levied on the numerous Chinese gambling-houses in the city, which have gained for it the title of the Monte Carlo of the East. 
Macao is situated on a small peninsula connected by a long, narrow causeway with the island of Heung Shan. The town faces southward and, sheltered by another island from the boisterous gales of the China seas, is yet cooled by the re- freshing breezes of the south, from which quarter the wind blows most of the year in that latitude. Victoria in our colony, on the other hand, is cut off from them by the high Peak towering above it; and its climate in consequence is hot and steamy in the long and unpleasant summer. 
So Macao is, then, a favourite resort of the citizens of Hong Kong. The large, flat-bottomed steamer that runs between the two places is generally crowded on Saturdays with inhabitants of the British colony, going to spend the weekend on the cooler rival island. The commercial competition of Macao is no longer to be dreaded. But this decaying Portuguese possession has recently acquired a certain importance in the eyes of the Hong Kong authorities and our statesmen in England by the fears of French aggression aroused by apparent en deavours to gain a footing in Macao.
Attempts have been made to purchase property in it in the name of the French Government which are sus pected to be the thin end of the wedge. Although the colony is not dangerous in the hands of its present possessors, it might become so in the power of more enterprising neighbours. Were it occupied by the French a much larger garrison would be required in Hong Kong. Of course, any attempt to invade our colony from Macao would be difficult; as the transports could not be convoyed by any large warships owing to the shallowness of the sea between the two places until Hong Kong harbour is reached. One battleship or cruiser, even without the assistance of the forts, should suffice to blow out of the water any vessels of sufficiently light draught to come out of the port of Macao. If any specially constructed, powerfully armed, shallow-draught men-o'-war—which alone would be serviceable —were sent out from Europe, their arrival would be noted and their purpose suspected. Still an opportunity might be seized when our China squadron was elsewhere engaged and the garrison of Hong Kong denuded. 
On the whole, the Portuguese are preferable neighbours to the aggressive French colonial party, which is constantly seeking to extend its influence in Southern China. In 1802 and again in 1808 Macao was occupied by us as a precaution against its seizure by the French. When garrison duty in Hong Kong during the damp, hot days of the summer palled, I once took ten days' leave to the pleasanter climate of Macao. 
I embarked in Victoria in one of the large, shallowdraught steamers of the Hong Kong, Canton, and Macao Steamboat Company, which keeps up the communication between the English and Portuguese colonies and the important Chinese city by a fleet of some half-dozen vessels. With the exception of one, they are all large and roomy craft from 2,000 to 3,000 tons burden. 
They run to, and return from. Canton twice daily on week-days. One starts from Hong Kong to Macao every afternoon and returns the following morning, except on Sundays. Between Macao and Canton they ply three times a week. The fares are not exorbitant—from Hong Kong to Macao three dollars, to Canton five, each way; between Macao and Canton three. (...) The steamer on which I made the short passage to Macao was the Heungshan (1,998 tons). She was a large shallow-draught vessel, painted white for the sake of coolness. She was mastless, with one high funnel, painted black; the upper deck was roomy and almost unobstructed. The sides between it and the middle deck were open; and a wide promenade lay all round the outer bulkheads of the cabins on the latter. Extending from amidships to near the bows were the first-class state rooms and a spacious, white - and - gold - panelled saloon. Forward of this the deck was open. Shaded by the upper deck overhead, this formed a delightful spot to laze in long chairs and gaze over the placid water of the land-locked sea at the ever-changing scenery. Aft on the same deck was the second-class accommodation. Between the outer row of cabins round the sides a large open space was left. This was crowded with fat and prosperous-looking Chinamen, lolling on chairs or mats, smoking long-stemmed pipes with tiny bowls and surrounded by piles of luggage. Below, on the lower deck, were herded the thirdclass passengers, all Chinese coolies. The companion-ways leading up to the main deck were closed by padlocked iron gratings. At the head of each stood an armed sentry, a half-caste or Chinese quartermaster in bluejacket-like uniform and naval straw hat. He was equipped with carbine and revolver; and close by him was a rack of rifles and cutlasses. All the steamers plying between Hong Kong, Macao, and Canton are similarly guarded; for the pirates who infest the Pearl River and the network of creeks near its mouth have been known to embark on them as innocent coolies and then suddenly rise, overpower the crew and seize the ship. 
For these vessels, besides conveying specie and cargo, have generally a number of wealthy Chinese passengers aboard, who frequently carry large sums of money with them. The Heungshan cast off from the crowded, bustling wharf and threaded her way out of Hong Kong harbour between the numerous merchant ships lying at anchor. In between Lantau and the mainland we steamed over the placid water of what seemed an inland lake. The shallow sea is here so covered with islands that it is generally as smooth as a mill-pond. Past stately moving junks and fussy little steam launches we held our way.
Islands and mainland rising in green hills from the water's edge hemmed in the narrow channel. In about two and a half hours we sighted Macao. We saw ahead of us a low eminence covered with the buildings of a European-looking town. Behind it rose a range of bleak mountains. We passed along by a gently curving bay lined with houses and fringed with trees, rounded a cape, and entered the natural harbour which lies between low hills. It was crowded with junks and sampans. In the middle lay a trim Portuguese gunboat, the Zaire, three-masted, with white superstructure and funnel and black hull. The small Canton-Macao steamer was moored to the wharf. The quay was lined with Chinese houses, twoor three - storied, with arched verandahs. 
The Heungshan ran alongside, the hawsers were made fast, and gangways run ashore. The Chinese passengers, carrying their baggage, trooped on to the wharf. One of them in his hurry knocked roughly against a Portuguese Customs officer who caught him by the pigtail and boxed his ears in reward for his awkwardness. It was a refreshing sight after the pampered and petted way in which the Chinaman is treated by the authorities in Hong Kong. There the lowest coolie can be as impertinent as he likes to Europeans, for he knows that the white man who ventures to chastise him for his insolence will be promptly summoned to appear before a magistrate and fined. Our treat-ment of the subject races throughout our Empire errs chiefly in its lack of common justice to the European. Seated in a ricksha, pulled and pushed by two coolies up steep streets, I was finally deposited at the door of the Boa Vista Hotel. 
This excellent hostelry—which the French endeavoured to secure for a naval hospital, and which has since been purchased by the Portuguese Government —was picturesquely situated on a low hill overlooking the town. The ground on one side fell sharply down to thfe sea which lapped the rugged rocks and sandy beach two or three hundred feet below. On the other, from the foot of the hill, a pretty bay with a tree-shaded esplanade—called the Praia Grande —stretched away to a high cape about a mile distant. 
The bay was bordered by a line of houses, prominent among which was the Governor's Palace. Behind them the city, built on rising ground, rose in terraces. The buildings were all of the Southern European type, with tiled roofs, Venetian-shuttered windows, and walls painted pink, white, blue, or yellow. Away in the heart of the town the gaunt, shattered fagade of a ruined church stood on a slight eminence. Here and there small hills crowned with the crumbling walls of ancient forts rose up around the city. 
Eager for a closer acquaintance with Macao, I drove out that afternoon in a ricksha. I was whirled first along the Praia Grande, which runs around the curving bay below the hotel. On the right-hand side lay a strongly built sea-wall. On the tree-shaded promenade between it and the roadway groups of the inhabitants of the city were enjoying the cool evening breeze. Sturdy litde Portuguese soldiers in dark-blue uniforms and kdpis strolled along in two and threes, ogling the yellow or dark-featured Macaese ladies, a few of whom wore mantillas. Half-caste youths, resplendent in loud check suits and immaculate collars and cuffs, sat on the sea-wall or, airily puffing their cheap cigarettes, sauntered along the promenade with languid grace. Grave citizens walked with their families, the prettier portion of whom affected to be demurely unconscious of the admiring looks of the aforesaid dandies. A couple of priests in shovel hats and long, black cassocks moved along in the throng. 
The left side of the Praia was lined with houses, among which were some fine buildings, including the Government, Post and Telegraph Bureaus, commercial offices, private residences, and a large mansion, with two projecting wings, the Governor's Palace. At the entrance stood a sentry, while the rest of the guard lounged near the doorway. At the end of the Praia Grande were the pretty public gardens, shaded by banyan trees, with flower-beds, a bandstand, and a large building beyond it—the Military Club. 
Past the gate of the Gardens the road turned away from the sea and ran between rows of Chinese houses until it reached the long, tree-bordered Estrada da Flora. On the left lay cultivated land. On the right the ground sloped gently back to a blufif hill, on which stood a lighthouse, the oldest in China. At the foot of this eminence lay the pretty summer residence of the Governor, picturesquely named Flora, surrounded by gardens and fenced in by a granite wall. Continuing under the name of Estrada da Bella Vista, the road ran on to the sea and turned to the left around a flower-bordered, terraced green mound, at the summit of which was a look-out whence a charming view was obtained. From this the mound derives the name of Bella Vista. In front lay a shallow bay. 
To the left the shore curved round to a long, low, sandy causeway, which connects Macao with the island of Heung Shan. Midway on this stood a masonry gateway. Porta Cerco, which marks the boundary between Portuguese and Chinese territory. Hemmed in by a sea-wall, the road continued from Bella Vista along above the beach, past the isthmus, on which was a branch road leading to the Porta, by a stretch of cultivated ground, and round the peninsula, until it reached the city again. 
After dinner that evening, accompanied by a friend staying at the same hotel, I strolled down to the Public Gardens, where the police band was playing and the "beauty and fashion" of Macao assembled. They were crowded with gay promenaders. Trim Portuguese naval or military officers, brightly dressed ladies, soldiers, civilians, priests and laity strolled up and down the walks or sat on the benches. Sallow-complexioned children chased each other round the flower-beds. Opposite the bandstand stood a line of chairs reserved for the Governor and his party. 
We met some acquaintances among the few British residents in the colony ; and one of them, being an honorary member of the Military Club situated at one end of the Gardens, invited us into it. We sat at one of the little tables on the terrace, where the dlite of Macao drank their coffee and liqueurs, and watched the gay groups promenading below. The scene was animated and interesting, thoroughly typical of the way in which Continental nations enjoy outdoor life, as the English never can. Hong Kong, with all its wealth and large European population, has no similar social gathering-place; and its citizens wrap themselves in truly British unneighbourly isolation. 
The government of Macao is administered from Portugal. The Governor is appointed from Europe; and the local Senate is vested solely with the municipal administration of the colony. The garrison consists of Portuguese artillerymen to man the forts and a regiment of Infantry of the Line, relieved regularly from Europe. There is also a battalion of police, supplemented by Indian and Chinese constables—the former recruited among the natives of the Portuguese territory of Goa on the Bombay coast, though many of the sepoys hail from British India. 
A gunboat is generally stationed in the harbour. The troubles all over China in 1900 had a disturbing influence even in this isolated Portuguese colony. An attack from Canton was feared in Macao as well as in Hong Kong; and the utmost vigilance was observed by the garrison. One night heavy firing was heard from the direction of the Porta Cerco, the barrier on the isthmus. It was thought that the Chinese were at last descending on the settlement. The alarm sounded and the troops were called out. Sailors were landed from the Zaire with machine-guns. 
A British resident in Macao told me that so prompt were the garrison in turning out that in twenty minutes all were at their posts and every position for defence occupied. At each street-corner stood a strong guard; and machine-guns were placed so as to prevent any attempt on the part of the Chinese in the city to aid their fellow-countrymen outside. However, it was found that the alarm was occasioned by the villagers who lived just outside the boundary, firing on the guards at the barrier in revenge for the continual insults to which their women, when passing in and out to market in Macao, were subjected by the Portuguese soldiers at the gate. No attack followed and the incident had no further consequences. At the close of 1901 or the beginning of 1902, more serious alarm was caused by the conduct of the regiment recently arrived from Portugal in relief. Dissatisfied with their pay or at service in the East, the men mutinied and threatened to seize the town. The situation was difficult, as they formed the major portion of the garrison. Eventually, however, the artillerymen, the police battalion, and the sailors from the Zaire succeeded in over-awing and disarming them. The ringleaders were seized and punished, and that incident closed. 
The European-born Portuguese in the colony are few and consist chiefly of the Government officials and their families and the troops. They look down upon the Macaese—as the colonials are called — with the supreme contempt of the pure-blooded white man for the half-caste. For, judging from their complexions and features, few of the Macanese are of unmixed descent. So the Portuguese from Europe keep rigidly aloof from them and unbend only to the few British and Americans resident in the colony. 

terça-feira, 21 de julho de 2020

Macau, escala numa viagem ao "Império Celeste": 1844


Before visiting the great city of the Celestial Empire let glance for a moment at Macao where we passed a few days feasting our eyes on the people of the various nations who here assembled.
Macao is a Portuguese town favorably on a small bay seventy miles from Canton near the mouth of river Tigris or Hong river. It is surrounded by high hills from one of which you have a fine view of the city and its harbor the latter of which is chiefly used by the natives.
The Praya Grande or principal street faces on the bay forming a semi circle. It is paved with smooth stones and serves both as a street or quay and as a breakwater to protect the houses from the violence of waves during the notheasterly monsoon. This bay presents one of the busiest scenes that I have ever beheld. Here may be seen boat women of very small stature sculling their tanker boats in every direction opium smugglers with their forty sweeps beating gongs and firing guns as a signal for their departure fastboats and fish boats rounding to near the beach with their various stores and the distinguishable cries of various Chinamen all of which combine to present as lively a scene as can be met with either in the Eastern or Western world.
As for the accommodations here little can be said in their praise they are much inferior to the public houses at Hong Kong. The company is transient the ships stopping here only for a few days to obtain provisions and other necessary outfits though they sometimes tranship part of their cargo. The charges at these hotels are much higher than at the best public houses in our country and yet the fare is poor. Strangers however are generally invited to stay at the houses of the consignees of the ship where they are very comfortably situated and hospitably entertained. Here we passed a few days when we proceeded up the river to the great city.
Besides the fish pilots who take the ship up the river there are many bar boats required which lie along the edge of the bars to indicate the line through which the ship can pass many of the passages are exceedingly narrow and difficult without them. Of the money paid to these men twothirds of it is squeezed from them by the petty mandarins. At certain stations on the river one may see the pilots counting out their tchen or mace which are tied together in little bundles of one hundred each.
These are the only coin issued by the government of China they are a composition of copper and zinc having a square hole in the centre. Many of them have found their way to this country. We passed the Bogue Forts which were completely riddled by the English and went on shore to see the forts on Wantong. One of their immense guns covered with Chinese characteristics was lying under the walls apparently spiked. The fort was remarkably well made and with but a few experienced men must have commanded the river as it is elevated above the ordinary range of a ship's gun yet we know that two well manned frigates destroyed both. The anchorage ground at Whampoa is fourteen miles from the city which must be approached in small boats. (...)

Este excerto é retirado da edição de 9 de Novembro de 1844 do jornal The New World (Nova Iorque, EUA) que publicou "Extracts from a journal on a voyage to China - A Voyage to the Celestial Empire" / Excertos de um Diário de uma Viagem à China - Viagem ao Império Celeste".

segunda-feira, 20 de julho de 2020

"O Oriente: gazeta hebdomedaria"

"O Oriente: gazeta hebdomedaria" foi fundada por Francisco de Magalhães em Janeiro de 1872 e durou até Outubro desse ano. 
De 4 páginas tinha periodicidade semanal (hebdomedária). A redacção ficava no nº 2 do Largo do Senado. Era impresso na Typographia José da Silva, no nº 1 da Rua Central.
Francisco da Silva Magalhães nasceu em Tomar. Formou-se em Medicina pela Universidade de Coimbra, em 1866. Em 1871 chegou a Macau como médico-cirurgião e professor do Seminário de S. José. Em Janeiro de 1872 fundou o jornal O Oriente título que usou para fazer duras críticas aos governadores (António Sérgio de Sousa e Januário Correia da Silva, Visconde de S. Januário), às congregações religiosas e à Associação Promotora da Instrução dos Macaenses.
No editorial pode ler-se:
  "Chegámos a Macau, e desde logo nos foi sensível a falta dum jornal que, servindo de dique aos actos governativos, que se nos afigurou não tenderem à prosperidade desta colónia, ao mesmo tempo transmitis-se à comunidade portuguesa espalha-da por todos os portos da China, abertos ao comércio europeu, as prosperidades e adversidades desta colónia (...); não hesitámos em inaugurar a publicação dum jornal semanal, O Oriente. Podem-no taxar de muitos defeitos; ninguém lhe negará, porém, a independência e a justiça com que tem advogado os interesses de Macau."
Nesse mesmo ano o Governador Visconde de S. Januário mandou-o prender sendo desterrado para Timor. A notificação da prisão ocorreu a 25 de Setembro de 1872:
"Secretaria do Governo de Macau e Timor — N° 865; Illmo. Sr.: De ordem de S. Ex.a o Governador dou a v. s. conhecimento, para os fins convenientes, do despacho lançado pelo mesmo Ex.mo Sr. no processo do conselho d'investigação a que respondeu o facultativo de lª classe do quadro desta província - Francisco da Silva Magalhães como editor responsável do jornal o "Oriente", pelo crime de difamação à pessoa do governador da colónia; - Despacho - Conformando-me com a opinião do conselho, e dispensado o réu de responder a conselho da guerra, impondo-lhe a pena de dez dias de prisão com homenagem na fortaleza do Monte, levando-lhe em conta o tempo decorrido desde que foi preso. Deus guarde a v. s. - Secretaria do governo de Macau, 25 de Setembro de 1872 — (ass.) Henrique de Castro, secretário geral".
A imprensa de Hong Kong - onde a comunidade portuguesa lhe ofereceu uma medalha de ouro - fez eco desta prisão durante vários dias. Aqui ficam dois exemplos:
Daily Advertiser de 21 de Setembro de 1872:
"Na vil prisão da fortaleza do Monte acha-se hoje o dr. Magalhães, redactor do Oriente, para responder pelos allegados libellos publicados no último número do jornal contra S. Ex.a o visconde de S. Januário. Como militar o dr. Magalhães terá de ser provavelmente processado em conselho de guerra. O artigo em questão contem por certo algumas palavras fortes contra o governador, mas não vemos ali libello algum, e muito mais porque o Oriente não fez accusação nenhuma; são por tanto, a nosso vêr, completamente injustificáveis a suppressão do jornal e a prizão do seu redactor."
Daily Press de 23 de Setembro de 1872:
"Somos informados de se haver creado um grande excitamento em Macau com a prisão do Dr. Magalhães, redactor do Oriente, ordenada pelo governador d'aquela colónia. Pelo que podemos d'ali coligir, parece que a acção do governador foi muito coerciva, e que de forma nenhuma poderá ser justificada pelas leis de Portugal. Adi-ante publicamos a tradução do artigo pelo qual é acusado o dr. Magalhães; mas não percebemos o que ali ha de offensivo à dignidade do governador. É certo que o censura fortemente sobre a sua conducta em readmitir na colónia as irmãs de caridade, mas esta questão é a que se acha licitamente aberta à discussão; e somos informados por autoridade competente que as leis de Portugal com respeito à imprensa são tão liberaes como são as de qualquer nação do mundo; que garantem completa liberdade aos que redigem jornaes, e os protegem de oppressão e coacção de qualquer natureza. Nestas leis está até consigna-da a clausula importante em que se diz que só compete às auctoridades judiciaes o tomar conhecimento das suas transgressões."
Já em Timor Francisco Magalhães viria a pedir a exoneração de médico militar tendo regressado a Macau. Poucos anos depois foi para as Filipinas onde ficou durante sete ano até que regressou novamente a Macau em 1883 leccionando novamente no Seminário. Regressaria a Portugal tendo morrido na terra natal a 8 de Março de 1886.
Publicou dois opúsculos: 
- As febres intermitentes e a hematúria. Macau. Typographia de J. da Silva, 1874. 
- Instruções sobre a cultura do tabaco em Timor. Macau, Typographia Mercantil, 1881.
Monsenhor Manuel Teixeira resumiu assim a vida e obra de Magalhães da silva em Macau:
"Se o Dr. Magalhães se tivesse limitado a exercer a sua profissão de médico, teria feito um óptimo papel em Macau e a sua memória seria abençoada. O mal foi ter-se deixado arrastar pelo seu ódio não só contra os Jesuítas, mas também contra as congregações religiosas e contra o Governador que as protegia. Com isto só ganhou a sua prisão e o seu desterro. Não lhe podemos negar os seus méritos como médico."
As ilustrações deste post são de várias edições do jornal "O Oriente"

domingo, 19 de julho de 2020

Boticas

Com a expulsão dos jesuítas de Macau em 1762 o fornecimento de medicamentos à população foi seriamente afectado, exceptuando o recurso aos hospitais e às boticas 'chinesas'. Estas eram o equivalente às actuais farmácias, mas não se limitavam a vender medicamentos. Antes pelo contrário. Vendiam de tudo a um pouco... por exemplo, chá e tabaco... Daí a origem da expressão "Há de tudo como na farmácia..."

Numa edição do jornal Archivo Pittoresco de 1868 encontramos uma descrição de como eram essas boticas chinesas:
"Na rua de Santo Agostinho recommenda-se entre todas a botica do china Vochon, nome que te ha-de ser conhecido pelo teres visto nos rotulos collados a muitos dos objectos chinezes que apparecem em Lisboa grande parte dos quaes são comprados naquella casa. Vochon faz leques é o distinctivo faceto daquelle estabelecimento redigido por um official da nossa marinha que o pintou em letras doiradas num quadro que figura no logar de honra da loja. Se o Vochon te vir passar na rua estranho e novo em Macau vem logo á porta a comprimentar te e a offerecer te os seus serviços. Quem trajar uniforme militar é logo por elle bem como pelos chinas em geral denominado capitão. Faz te entrar, enche-te a charuteira de optimos manillas e começa logo a mostrar-te os mais curiosos objectos do seu commercio. Ficas por tal modo encantado com o delicado trabalho dos artefactos que te apresenta que não tens animo para te retirares sem teres deixado alli até á ultima pataca. Mas em compensação trazes cópia de objectos bonitos e valiosos que vem depois na Europa apregoar lisongeiramente o teu bom gosto de comprador. Além d'issò o bom do Vochon não te deixa sair sem que lhe acceites uma chávena de chá. Tomas uma infusão de chá preto extremamente forte e feito na propria chávena que tem uma tampa da mesma porcellana ao uso chinez."

Um recibo de 1866
Em 1790 existiam duas boticas públicas: a do Senado e da Misericórdia. Em 1863 existia apenas uma botica privada e nos anos seguintes surgiriam outras.
"São duas presentemente as boticas ambas situadas na Praia Grande rua principal da cidade Uma é administrada por Joaquim das Neves e Sousa pharmaceutico approvado na universidade de Coimbra e a outra por Thomas José de Freitas habilitado pela escola medico cirurgica de Lisboa. Ambas estas boticas são asseadas, bem fornecidas, servem com promptidão e exercem a caridade para com pobres."

in Relatório ácerca do serviço de saúde de Macau respectivo aos annos de 1865 a 1867

sábado, 18 de julho de 2020

The Statesman's Year-Book 1981-82

in The Statesman's Year-Book:
 statistical and historical annual of the states of the world for the year 1981-1982
Porta do Cerco
San Ma Lou junto ao Largo do Senado e Ruínas de S. Paulo
Algumas fotos do início da década de 1980 (não incluídas no livro)

sexta-feira, 17 de julho de 2020

Radio Markets of the World, 1930

Macao
Language: Portuguese 
Area: 4 square miles 
Population: 74,668 
Little radio development has been noted in Macao although the number of listeners appears to be growing. Summers are hot and winters warm with comparatively poor reception throughout the year. About 40 sets are now installed purchased in all parts of the world. There is no broadcasting but reception from Hong Kong and to a lesser extent from Chinese and Japanese stations is satisfactory. No alternating current sets are in use. One or two shortwave receivers are giving little service. 
in Radio Markets of the World, 1930. Departament of Commerce. USA. 
Por Lawrence Dearborn Batso.
primeira estação de rádio em Macau foi criada em 1933, com emissões diárias de duas horas sob as designações CQN-MACAU e CRY-9-MACAU. Estava localizada no edifício dos Correios. Em 1938 surgiram as emissões da Rádio Polícia sob designação XX9-RÁDIO POLÍCIA. Pertencia à Polícia de Segurança Pública (PSP) e funcionava na Esquadra número 2, junto ao Canídromo. Em 1941 surgiu o Rádio Clube de Macau herdando as instalações da emissora CRY-9-MACAU. 

quinta-feira, 16 de julho de 2020

Camilo Pessanha: curiosidades (2ª parte)

Camilo de Almeida Pessanha nasceu a 7 de Setembro de 1867, às 11 horas, na Sé Nova, Coimbra, onde tirou o curso de Direito. Ainda em Portugal foi Procurador Régio em Mirandela (1892) e advogado em Óbidos. Em 1894 transfere-se para Macau, onde, durante três anos, foi professor de Filosofia Elementar no Liceu de Macau, deixando de leccionar por ter sido nomeado, em 1900, conservador do registo predial e depois juiz de comarca. Em Macau foi também advogado. Entre 1894 e 1915 voltou a Portugal algumas vezes, para tratamentos, tendo, numa delas, sido apresentado a Fernando Pessoa que era, como Mário de Sá-Carneiro, apreciador da sua poesia. 
 Em 1920 Pessanha fez parte do grupo de intelectuais que formou o Instituto Macau.
Em 1916 Pessoa chegou a convidar Pessanha para publicar textos seus na revista Orpheu o que nunca veio a acontecer. Eis um excerto da carta:
“Há anos que os poemas de V. Ex.a são muito conhecidos, e invariavelmente admirados, por toda Lisboa. É para lamentar – e todos lamentam – que eles não estejam, pelo menos em parte, publicados. Se estivessem inteiramente escondidos da publicidade, nas laudas ocultas dos seus cadernos, esta abstinência da publicidade seria, da parte de V. Ex.a, lamentável mas explicável. O que se dá, porém, não se explica; visto que, sendo de todos mais ou menos conhecidos esses poemas, eles não se encontram acessíveis a um público maior e mais permanente na forma normal da letra redonda, (...) é porque muito admiro esses poemas, e porque muito lamento o seu caracter de inéditos (quando. Aliás, correm, estropiados, de boca em boca os cafés), que ouso endereçar a V. Ex.a esta carta, com o pedido que contém”
Camilo pessanha publicou poemas em várias revistas e jornais, mas seu único livro Clepsydra (1920 - Edições Lusitania), foi publicado sem a sua participação (estava em Macau) por Ana de Castro Osório, a partir de autógrafos e recortes de jornais.
Posteriormente, o filho de Ana de Castro Osório, João de Castro Osório, ampliou a Clepsidra original, acrescentando-lhe poemas que foram encontrados. Essas edições foram publicadas em 1945, 1954 e 1969.
 Casa onde viveu Camilo Pessanha na Praia Grande
Camilo Pessanha morreu em Macau a 1 de Março de 1926 em Macau vítima de tuberculose pulmonar, doença para a qual muito contribuiu o consumo regular de ópio.