domingo, 13 de maio de 2018

Ljungstedt no "The Canton Register" em 1835

The Author of the Historical Sketch of the Portuguese Settlements in China begs leave to inform the gentlemen who may honor him with their subscriptions that the price of the book consisting of from 370 to 400 pages in full size Octavo will be two dollars payables on delivery. The editor of the Canton Register will be so good as to receive the subscription list at the end of this year and to distribute the work when completed The subscribers will be informed in the Canton Register and the Chronica de Macao when the book is ready for delivery. ANDREW LJUNGSTEDT

Curiosa esta notícia publicada no jornal The Canton Register, edição de terça-feira, 10 de Novembro de 1835. No caso Andrew Ljungstedt, sueco, (1759–1835), informa e solicita a quem estiver interessado para comprar o livro que está a preparar.
An historical sketch of the Portuguese settlements in China and of the Roman Catholic Church and mission in China seria editado no ano seguinte com 381 páginas nos EUA.
De seguida, reproduzo o prefácio, mas antes disso, a explicação do autor, sobre onde foi buscar tanta informação para o livro:
"Dom Joaquim Saraiva, Lord Bishop of Peking, took, during his residence at Macao, where he drew in 1818, at the Royal College of St. Joseph, his last breath, incredible and unrelenting pains in saving from perdition a host of interesting accounts relative to Macao. They were recorded in an authentic manner, but on materials, which by the age of centuries
had been defaced, mutilated, worm-eaten, and were mouldering into dust. With his excellency's friendly permission, I compared with his valuable manuscript extracts my accumulated collections ': they were thereby improved so much, that this my humble Essay may, in many respects, be considered a repository of facts, of which the archives of the Senate can exhibit the originals no more."
O autor viria a morrer nesse mesmo ano, 1835, em Macau, estando o tumulo no cemitério protestante. A obra que deixou não foi bem recebida já que na prática afirmava não existirem documentos que provavam a cedência de Macau aos portugueses em troca da ajuda do combate aos piratas.

Placing an implicit confidence in the judgment of enlightened friends, who were pleased to think, that the two Historical contributions, concerning the Portuguese settlements in China, and principally of Macao, distributed in 1832, and 1834, among them for the purpose of gratifying general inquisitiveness, might be of some public utility, I resolved to revise my Essays, correct mistakes, enlarge the view, and connect occurrences in a natural series of chronology.
That the size of the little work may not swell by extraneous digressions, nor by my own individual reflections, all my exertions have been confined within the limits of a simple and faithful narration of facts, leaving to the reader his right to exercise, at discretion, the faculties of his own intellect on the subjects under consideration. They are examined under distinct heads, and in chapters, that any inquirer may satisfy his curiosity by referring to the place alluded to, and decide on their relative merit.
In perusing the annexed copy of the preface which preceded the first contribution, it will be evident, that chance determined the author to seek for information about Macao in books and archives. From among the many various and detached hints, the most authentic have been recorded with an intention that the selection may prove a useful auxiliary to a future historian. It embraces for near three centuries, a succint description of the most memorable
changes of Macao, and closes at an epoch, in which his imperial majesty, Dm. Pedro, Duke of Bragança, by his heroic and glorious exploits, and by his comprehensive genius, is laying, on the sound principle of respect for mutual rights of individuals and nations, a solid foundation for the everlasting (I most sincerely wish,) prosperity, happiness, and grandeur of the Portuguese monarchy.
Thirty years ago but few persons doubted that the Kings of Portugal exercised at Macao their sovereign authority, in virtue of an imperial grant of the place to vassals of Portugal for eminent services rendered by them to the Chinese empire. The author of this Essay entertained the same opinion, when in 1802, a British auxiliary detachment arrived and offered to defend, in conjunction with the Portuguese, the settlement against an apprehended attack from the French; a friendly proposal, which the government of Macao could not accept, because the Chinese authorities interfered. On their part, the same resist-
ance was, in 1808, experienced, when a British force for a similar purpose, with the consent of the Macao government, had disembarked and garrisoned three forts; the auxiliaries at last evacuated the place and re-embarked. These results prove, that the Portuguese never had acquired the right of sovereignty over Macao, though they have been in possession of it
nearly three centuries.
To trace the beginning of this settlement and its progress, and to examine on what ground Macao is numbered among the ultra-marine dominions of Portugal was of consequence. Historians who detailed the earliest achievements of their countrymen in Asia, and records of the first missionary labours in China, gave the clue and exhibited to us the origin. National and foreign authors of later dates describe the advancement, prosperity and decline of Macao, the inhabitants of which, being principally by birth from Portugal, claimed in virtue of their allegiance, the protection of their sovereign: it was granted and a government instituted. By this concession, the court of Lisbon fancied that it had acquired an inherent right to the dominion of Macao, though the members of the Senate in 1593, assured his majesty, Philip I. that "they maintained themselves in the place by spending much with the Chinese." Portuguese annalists, travellers and foreigners, ignorant of this confidential declaration, echoed, that the Kings of Portugal possessed in China, as absolute masters, a
spot, denominated Macao.
The Portuguese were the first Europeans who pushed their navigation to the southern confines of China, where they succeeded in forming an important settlement; an event, which the Kings of Portugal meant to improve by diplomatic missions, in order to obtain for their vassals at Macao, by the sanction of the sovereign of China, an extension of liberty and commercial advantages. Little, however, or rather no acknowledged benefit was ever conferred : the long voyages and costly visits all ended - it seems - in mutual exchange of presents and civilities.
By the zeal of Portugal, Christianity was transplanted from Europe to the East Indies and China. In our account of the Roman Catholic Mission in China, we have endeavored to delineate the difficulties the first missionaries had to contend with ; their perseverance; their attention to arrive by unanimous proceedings, at their object - the conversion of China to Christianity; then we have briefly described the lamentable schism, caused by presumptuous foreigners, who thought themselves better qualified than the emperor to fix the explanatory meaning of a couple of Chinese characters under dispute. In the mean time, many men of learning and influence embraced the foreign creed and favored it; its opponents more numerous, were enabled, now and then, by their remonstrances to put a check to its rapid progress, and by reiterated attacks they at last convinced Yung- ching of the necessity to prohibit the exercise of the christian religion in all his extensive dominions. Nevertheless, zealous and obedient Europeans are employed in their respective missions, though with little expectation to be inscribed on the catalogue of martyrs; for on those few, who may occasionally be apprehended in their illicit pursuit, the sentence of death is seldom inflicted.
The rational and innocent ceremonies - except in the eyes of the intolerante - with which the Chinese are wont to honor Confucius and the manes of departed ancestors, a tribunal of Inquisitors reputed superstitious and idolatrous ; as such, the court of Rome condemned them. This innovation aimed at introducing a schism in government, for to disobey the Holy See, the Chinese christians were taught to be a mortal sin; a venial one it was, not to submit to the laws of the country, whenever they were not in harmony with the supreme will of his holiness. That Kang-he might sanction this anti-social doctrine, Clement XI. employed legates. The emperor condescended to receive them, to listen to the propositions of the Pope, and even to discuss their merit, but he peremptorily refused to alienate the smallest portion of his legislative power, and dismissed the legates.
Considerable pains have been taken in collecting the materials which are arranged under the head, noted at the title-page; they are now submitted to the critical scrutiny of a few friends, and of those gentlemen, who, for the sake of research, may be disposed to excuse the absence of eloquent language in a performance, traced by the pen of a foreigner.

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