quinta-feira, 2 de maio de 2019

"Dr Colledge's Ophthalmic Infirmary in Macau"

Um dos primeiros médicos ocidentais a exercer medicina na China foi o britânico, Thomas Richardson Colledge, (1796-1879). Depois da formação no Hospital St. Thomas em Londres, Colledge entrou como cirurgião para o serviço da Companhia das Índias Orientais, a toda poderosa empresa mercantil que primeiro o contratou sendo depois colocadono consulado de Cantão ao serviço do governo britânico.
Em 1827 criou em Macau a primeira instituição a oferecer cuidados médicos ocidentais ao nível da oftalmologia à população local. Conhecido como Hospital Oftalmológico de Colledge, estava disponível para todos os tipos de doenças, mas concentrava-se em problemas oculares, tendo tratado mais de quatro mil pacientes ao longo dos anos.
Em 1838 regressou a Inglaterra e nesse altura já o amigo Peter Parker (oriundo dos E.U.A.) estava a tomar conta do hospital em Macau. Eles foram os fundadores da Medical Missionary Society of China, a primeira sociedade médico-missionária do mundo (1837).
O cirurgião Thomas Colledge e a mulher, Caroline.
One of the first Western-trained physicians to go to China was an Englishman, Thomas Richardson Colledge (1796-1879). After completing his medical education at St Thomas's Hospital in London, Colledge entered as a surgeon the service of the East India Company, the powerful mercantile firm who employed him and later he also worked fot the British government as a surgeon to the consulate at Canton. 
In 1827 he created, in Macao, the first institution to offer Chinese people Western ophthalmic medical care. Known as Colledge's Ophthalmic Hospital, it was available for all types of disease but concentrated on ocular problems. Quickly, Dr Colledge became very busy and treated about 4000 patients in just a few years.
In 1838 he left Macao to England and by that time, his friend Peter Parker (from USA), took care of the hospital at Macao. They were the founders of Medical Missionary Society of China, the first medical missionary society in the world (1837).
"Dr Colledge's Ophthalmic Infirmary in Macau" é o título de um desenho a lápis com o número 14 escrito também a lápis (talvez pelo punho de Colledge) e incluído num livro com vários desenhos enviado da China em 1832 para a irmão de Colledge, Matilda.
"Dr Colledge's Ophthalmic Infirmary in Macau" is a pencil drawing, bumbered 14, and inscribed in ink in an early hand (perhaps Colledge's) on the original backing paper 'Colledge's Ophthalmic Infirmary, Macao's Provenance from a book of drawings sent back from the China coast in 1832 by Dr Colledge to his sister Matilda.

Chinnery's portrait (1833) in oils of Dr College operating in his infirmary is held by the Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, Mass.
Existe várias versões feitas a partir deste original de G. Chinnery (1833) que faz parte do espólio do Museu Essex, em Salem (EUA). O da imagem abaixo é de William Daniel.
Portrait of Thomas Richardson Colledge (1796-1879) attending at his provate Ophthalmic Infirmary in Macao. By William Daniel after a paint by George Chinnery. An aquatint depicting Thomas Richardson Colledge at work in his ophthalmic infirmary. He is shown with his hand on the head of a woman, presumably his patient, whilst turning towards a man standing behind a table. To the left of the image is another patient, who is sat on the floor, with bandages around his eyes
Excerto de artigo publicado no The Chinese Repository, de 1833:
Several months ago we alluded to the existence of this institution and expressed a hope that we might erelong lay before our readers some account of its operations but at that time we were not aware of its extensive usefulness nor of the confidence in the skill of its founder which its success has secured among the native inhabitants.
The Chinese need ocular demonstration of the intelligence practical skill and kind feelings of those who come to their shores from far. They have had proof enough of their enterprise and bold daring and not a little too of their shrewdness and foresight but very rarely have they had opportunity to witness deeds of charity and acts of benevolence. Were the records that are on high let down before our eyes what dark scenes would they disclose. Many of the adventurers who first penetrated to this farther East two centuries ago were as reckless and cruel as they were bold and intrepid. An honorable commerce and the exercise of Christian charity would never we apprehend have closed against foreigners the northern ports of China or those of Japan. We allude to these things as the scenes of other times and with the most confident expectation that they are not to be reacted In this opinion we are confirmed by facts some of which are already on record and by the existence of such institutions as that which we now have the pleasure of noticing (...)

Neste artigo é ainda publicada uma carta, com a data de 26 de Setembro de 1832, escrita em Macau e assinada por W. H. C. Plowden:
"I have this day visited Mr Colledge's Ophthalmic Infirmary and having witnessed the origin of the undertaking. I am happy to bear testimony to the complete success which has attended the zealous exertions of this gentleman in behalf of the suffering poor in China. The number of native patients amounting to about four thousand who during the last five years have sought aid from this institution and among whom many have been restored to sight and others relieved from almost hopeless blindness is an honorable proof of the professional skill of its founder and of the confi dence which he has inspired into all classes of the Chinese. To Mr Colledge therefore belongs the merit of having established by aid of voluntary donation the first institution in this country for the relief of the indigent natives.
I cannot close these observations without alluding to the honorable testimony that has been at various times recorded of Mr Colledge's professional skill and abilities by the Select Committee in their dispatches to the Honorable the Court of Directors of the East India Company both at the period when he was first selected to fill the situation of surgeon to their establishment in Chia and also subsequently when the great benefit derived by the Chinese suffering poor from this gentleman's professional talent and benevolent disposition has been otficially brought to their notice.
As an individual who has witnessed the beneficial effects of Mr Colledge's medical ability I feel the greatest gratification in thus bearing testimony to his merits both as a surgeon and a philanthropist.
Signed W. H. C. Plowden
Chief for all afairs of the British Nation in China
Macao, 26th September 1832."
Uma ilustração (de Goerge chinnery) do que foi o Hospital de Colledge em Macau. Surge no livro An East India Company Cemetery: Protestant Burials in Macao. Edição de 1996 da Hong Kong University Press e da autoria de Lindsay e May Ride.
Numa edição de 1837 da publicação Evangelical Magazine and Missionary Chronicle pode ler-se:
The next effort was made by Dr Livingstone followed by Dr TR Colledge the latter of whom from the year 1827 to 1832 conducted gratuitously an ophthalmic hospital in Macao. The European inhabitants of Canton and Macao together with the more opulent and respectable classes of the Chinese subscribed towards the support of the hospital while the Honourable East India Company liberally supplied it with medicine.
The contributions amounted to 7446 dollars and about 4000 indigent Chinese have been relieved from various maladies many restored to sight and more saved from impending blindness. A number of very delightful letters of thanks have been received from patients who had obtained relief in the hospital which tend to show not only the gratitude of the Chinese for benefits received but the wide spread reports which the benevolent efforts of Dr Colledge have obtained throughout the provinces. One instance occurred of a patient falling down suddenly and expiring while conversing with Dr Colledge but the Chinese magistrate on being applied to received the information with good feeling and having satisfied himself concerning the circumstances of his death evinced no desire either to extort money or to create difficulties while the operations of the hospital went on as usual.
Another poor man had his arm broken through being run over by an English captain which would have resulted in some inconvenience to the individual who was the cause of the accident but for the timely interference of Dr Colledge who was the means of his restoration and of the establishment of a kind feeling between the parties When Dr Pearson left China in 1832 the increased medical duties which devolved on Dr Colledge compelled him to relinquish his practice among the Chinese and to close his useful and successful establishment. In addition to Dr Colledge's establishment at Macao a dispensary was opened at Canton by Drs Bradford and Cox at which a considerable number of out door patients were relieved. (...)

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